Casu Marzu Cheese: The Controversial Sardinian Delicacy

If you’re a cheese lover looking to explore unique and intriguing delicacies, Casu Marzu cheese from Sardinia is a must-try. This controversial cheese, also known as “rotten cheese” or “maggot cheese,” has a rich and pungent flavor that is not for the faint of heart. In this article, we will delve into the history, production, and controversy surrounding Casu Marzu cheese, as well as provide insights on where you can taste this one-of-a-kind delicacy.

History and Origin of Casu Marzu Cheese

Casu Marzu cheese, also known as “rotten cheese” or “maggot cheese”, has a long history dating back to ancient times in Sardinia, Italy. The cheese is traditionally made from sheep’s milk and is left to ferment and age for several months. During this process, live insect larvae, specifically cheese flies, are introduced to the cheese to break down the fats and create a unique texture and flavor.

Traditional production methods

The production of Casu Marzu cheese is a meticulous and labor-intensive process. After the cheese has aged for a period of time, it is then manually infested with cheese fly larvae. The larvae burrow into the cheese, digesting the fats and creating a soft, creamy texture. The cheese is then left to ripen further, allowing the flavors to develop and intensify.

Cultural significance in Sardinia

Casu Marzu cheese holds a special place in Sardinian culture and traditions. It is often served during special occasions and celebrations, such as weddings and festivals. The cheese is considered a delicacy and is highly prized for its pungent aroma and complex flavor profile. In Sardinia, consuming Casu Marzu is seen as a sign of respect for tradition and a connection to the land and history of the region.

Controversies Surrounding Casu Marzu Cheese

Casu Marzu Cheese, also known as “rotten cheese” or “maggot cheese,” is a traditional Sardinian delicacy that has sparked numerous controversies over the years.

Health concerns

One of the main controversies surrounding Casu Marzu Cheese is the potential health risks associated with consuming it. The presence of live insect larvae in the cheese can pose a health hazard, as these maggots can survive the acidic environment of the stomach and cause intestinal myiasis. This has raised concerns among health authorities and consumers about the safety of consuming Casu Marzu Cheese.

Legal status

The production and sale of Casu Marzu Cheese have been banned by the European Union due to health and hygiene concerns. Despite this, the cheese is still produced and consumed in certain regions of Sardinia, leading to legal battles and debates over the enforcement of these regulations. The legal status of Casu Marzu Cheese remains a contentious issue in the food industry.

Ethical implications

The production of Casu Marzu Cheese raises ethical questions about animal welfare and the treatment of food animals. The use of live insect larvae in the cheese-making process has been criticized for its inhumane treatment of dairy animals and the potential harm caused to the insects themselves. This has led to debates about the ethical implications of consuming Casu Marzu Cheese and the sustainability of this traditional practice.

Unique Characteristics of Casu Marzu Cheese

Fermentation process

Casu Marzu cheese is known for its unique fermentation process, which involves the introduction of live insect larvae into the cheese. These larvae, typically from the cheese fly, break down the fats in the cheese and create a soft, creamy texture. This fermentation process gives Casu Marzu its distinct flavor and aroma.

Texture and flavor profile

Due to the fermentation process involving insect larvae, Casu Marzu cheese has a soft texture and a strong, pungent flavor. Some describe the taste as tangy and slightly acidic, with a hint of sweetness. The presence of the larvae also adds an additional layer of complexity to the flavor profile, making Casu Marzu a truly unique and controversial delicacy.

Consumption traditions

In Sardinia, where Casu Marzu cheese originates, it is traditionally consumed in a specific way. The cheese is typically spread on bread or crackers and paired with a glass of red wine. Some even prefer to eat the cheese with the live larvae still present, as they believe it enhances the flavor. However, due to health concerns, the European Union has banned the sale of Casu Marzu cheese, making it illegal to produce or sell in many countries. Despite this, the tradition of consuming Casu Marzu as a delicacy lives on in Sardinia.


In conclusion, Casu Marzu cheese remains a highly controversial delicacy from Sardinia due to its unique production process and strong flavor profile. While some may find the idea of consuming cheese infested with live insect larvae repulsive, others see it as a treasured tradition that has been passed down for generations. Whether you are adventurous enough to try Casu Marzu or prefer to stick to more conventional cheeses, there is no denying the cultural significance and polarizing nature of this Sardinian specialty.